Lecture 1-II-Devendra Swarup
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The first talk in this series raised the core issues and questions that force us to rethink about the constitutional framework and the structures of governance that India has evolved during the British times. Shri Devendra Swarup began his talk by raising the question whether the India that we see today, three generations after Independence, was the free India for which our forefathers had fought and sacrificed so much. Is this the India that our forefathers had seen as a beacon for the world? Is this the India the vision of which had inspired many generations? Why have we failed to realise that vision? It seems to me that one of the main causes of the problems that we face as a nation is the Constitution of India. It has created a polity that has necessarily led to the division and fragmentation of the society; it has put a premium on politics based in caste and minority identities. It has made smaller identities much more important than the larger national identity. It has made coherence and harmony in public life nearly impossible. It has erased all sense of national purpose and patriotism from public life. The Sultans and the Mughals ruled over a fairly large part of India for several centuries. But though the number of Muslims in India did increase both through conversion and a relatively less significant import of mercenaries, soldiers and administrators from foreign Islamic lands, yet the Indian ideas, institutions and lifestyles remained more or less intact, even in their greatly enfeebled state. The invaders before the Muslims were not at all able to disturb or disrupt India; they simply got submerged in the Indian milieu and identity. The British, however, succeeded in establishing alien ideas and institutions which we continue to stand-by even today. Why did this happen? This historical evolution and differences are also covered in this. This is part part 2.

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